DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.



Name: Neeta Y. Yousaf                                         

Date: May 11th, 2012

Fill in the information below (the * are the minimum entries to complete, without * are for extra credit). For each link, make sure the description of the page and the URL are given. This page should be a compilation of all of your searching and should be in your own words, your names will appear on the completed web pages. Place your answers under each title: Arial, normal, 12 pt, single spaced 


Title (Disease): 

Breast Cancer



 Breast cancer does not only affect women but also men. However only 6% of the patients are men. One of the leading cancers in women, it is a hormone sensitive condition in which estrogen encourages tumor growth. Women may be genetically predisposed to it or an environmental risk factor may initiate tumor growth in the breasts.



While there are barely any symptoms associated with the initial stages of breast cancer, a thickening or a lump in the breast or around the armpit is usually a telltale sign. This is why it is important to be regularly screened through breast exams. Other signs may include any alteration in the size, shape or texture of the nipple or a discharge from the nipple.

In men symptoms include breast lumps and also bone pain, skin ulcers, swelling of one arm next ot the breast with cancer and weight loss.



 In women, there are two main types:

1. Ductal carcinoma- the predominant cancer affecting the ducts that move milk from the breast to the nipple.

2. Lobular carcinoma affecting lobules that produce milk.


Breast cancer may be invasive or noninvasive. The former can spread from one tissue to another and affect a progressively a larger part of the breast. The latter does not invade other tissue and is called in situ.


Some factors that play into the origin of the disease are age, gender, family history, genes and menstrual cycle.



Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in female cancer patients globally. Usually found in areas where obesity is common it was prevalent through the developed world. However now there are low rates of the disease in other previously unaffected regions as well. Most established risk factors are linked to the hormone estrogen. Use of contraceptives and alcohol slightly increase the risk while childbearing, breast feeding and physical activity probably offer protection.



A specialist may examine for lumps or thickening around the breast or armpit but the following tests can offer definitive evidence for breast cancer: Breast MRI, breast biopsy, breast ultrasound, mammography, CT scan and PET scan.


*Prognosis: (based on stages) 

Recent advancements in technology are helping patients cope with their condition longer. There is always risk of malignancy and recurrence though.

The more advanced the stage of breast cancer, the harder it is to recover from it. Some factors govern the likelihood of recurrence. For instance, the location of tumor and its invasiveness level or whether a tumor was hormone sensitive or not.


*Progression of the disease: 

Breast cancer can be staged through zero to four, four being the worst with the highest level of invasiveness. When it is highly invasive, it may spread to other organs forming secondary tumors and becoming metastatic. The most common regions affected in this manner are:

1. Bone


3. Liver


*Treatments: (include drug, surgery, fetal tissue, stem cell! gene therapy, etc. -if appropriate) 

For Disease: 





For Symptoms: 

Tamoxifen use

Plant-based diet

Low-fat foods


*External links: 





Current Research in the area of interest: as bibliography 

And ordered as different aspects of the disease -may include the primary sources from your paper (such as for Huntingtons -papers on the htt gene, htt protein, number of repeats and early onset of the disease, etc.) 

URLs from favorite websites (best designed and most user-friendly) -ones that might provide a model for ours) 

Other (anything else that might be important or interesting to include on the site):

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.